Happy Martin Luther (King) Day!

Happy Martin Luther (King) Day!

(Two Great Men with the same name who equally deserve a Holiday!)
I actually did this many years ago, but decided to add it as a blog post today.

1483-1546 1929-1968

Leader of the Protestant Reformation

Leader of the Civil Rights Movement


Martin Luther was the leader of the Protestant Reformation, a religious movement.

BACKGROUND
Luther was born in 1483 and died in 1546. He was born in Eisleben, Saxony. In 1501 he enrolled in the University of Enfurt. His family wanted him to become a lawyer. Yet Luther vowed to become a monk. Martin Luther studied the New and the Old Testaments and started to ask questions about faith. In 1523 Luther published an important work on temporal authority. In 1508 he was sent to Wittenburg and studied and lectured in moral philosophy. Martin Luther was the son of a Saxon miner.

IMPACT

Martin Luther made the Bible available to the people. He influenced religious thought throughout Europe. Luther also weakened the power of the Church.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS

Martin Luther published the 95 theses which criticized the Catholic Church. He taught that the Bible should be the sole authority in the Church. He also taught to trust in Jesus, do good works and trust in the Bible. Later he criticized the Pope for selling indulgences. Then he was later tried by the Diet in Worms. After that he was excommunicated. In 1520 he published three works spelling out his understanding of Christianity. Then he translated the New and Old Testaments into German.


Luther’s translation of the New Testament


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Bainton, Toland H. “Men and Cities of the Reformation.” The Renaissance: Maker of a Modern Man. Washington, National Geographic Society, 1970, p. 287.

2. Cole, Alison. The Renaissance. Toronto, Stoddart Publishing Co., 1994, p. 43.

3. Cox, F. Kenneth. Human Heritage: A World History. Colombus, Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co., 1983, pp. 550-553.

4. Edwards, M. U. “Martin Luther.” World Book Encyclopedia, 1994, vol. 12, pp. 531-533.

5. Spitz, Lewis W. “Luther, Martin.” Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc., 1995.


This page was prepared by Corbin and Jeremy, Grade 8, Riverdale Junior Secondary School.


_Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther
on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences_
by Dr. Martin Luther, 1517
Published in:
_Works of Martin Luther_

Adolph Spaeth, L.D. Reed, Henry Eyster Jacobs, et Al., Trans. & Eds.
(Philadelphia: A. J. Holman Company, 1915), Vol. 1, pp. 29-38.

DISPUTATION OF DOCTOR MARTIN LUTHER
ON THE POWER AND EFFICACY OF
INDULGENCES

OCTOBER 31, 1517

Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light,
the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg,
under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther,
Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in
Ordinary on the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that
those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us,
may do so by letter.

In the Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.

1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam
agite, willed that the whole life of believers should be
repentance.

2. This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance,
i.e., confession and satisfaction, which is administered by
the priests.

3. Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no
inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers
mortifications of the flesh.

4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as
hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward
repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom
of heaven.

5. The pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any
penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his
own authority or by that of the Canons.

6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that
it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God’s
remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases
reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in
such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely
unforgiven.

7. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same
time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His
vicar, the priest.

8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and,
according to them, nothing should be imposed on the dying.

9. Therefore the Holy Spirit in the pope is kind to us,
because in his decrees he always makes exception of the
article of death and of necessity.

10. Ignorant and wicked are the doings of those priests who,
in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for
purgatory.

11. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of
purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown
while the bishops slept.

12. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not
after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition.

13. The dying are freed by death from all penalties; they are
already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be
released from them.

14. The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the
imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity,
great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater is the fear.

15. This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say
nothing of other things) to constitute the penalty of
purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.

16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair,
almost-despair, and the assurance of safety.

17. With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror
should grow less and love increase.

18. It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that
they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of
increasing love.

19. Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all
of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness,
though we may be quite certain of it.

20. Therefore by “full remission of all penalties” the pope
means not actually “of all,” but only of those imposed by
himself.

21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who
say that by the pope’s indulgences a man is freed from every
penalty, and saved;

22. Whereas he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which,
according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this
life.

23. If it is at all possible to grant to any one the remission
of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission
can be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to the very
fewest.

24. It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the
people are deceived by that indiscriminate and highsounding
promise of release from penalty.

25. The power which the pope has, in a general way, over
purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate
has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish.

26. The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in
purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not
possess), but by way of intercession.

27. They preach man who say that so soon as the penny jingles
into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory].

28. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the
money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result
of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God
alone.

29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be
bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts. Severinus and
Paschal.

30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much
less that he has attained full remission.

31. Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is also
the man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most
rare.

32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their
teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation
because they have letters of pardon.

33. Men must be on their guard against those who say that the
pope’s pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man
is reconciled to Him;

34. For these “graces of pardon” concern only the penalties of
sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man.

35. They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that
contrition is not necessary in those who intend to buy souls
out of purgatory or to buy confessionalia.

36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full
remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of
pardon.

37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in
all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is
granted him by God, even without letters of pardon.

38. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the
blessings of the Church] which are granted by the pope are in
no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the
declaration of divine remission.

39. It is most difficult, even for the very keenest
theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people
the abundance of pardons and [the need of] true contrition.

40. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but liberal
pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at
least, furnish an occasion [for hating them].

41. Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution, lest
the people may falsely think them preferable to other good
works of love.

42. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend
the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of
mercy.

43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor
or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons;

44. Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes
better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more
free from penalty.

45. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in
need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons,
purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation
of God.

46. Christians are to be taught that unless they have more
than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary
for their own families, and by no means to squander it on
pardons.

47. Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is
a matter of free will, and not of commandment.

48. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting
pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for
him more than the money they bring.

49. Christians are to be taught that the pope’s pardons are
useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether
harmful, if through them they lose their fear of God.

50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the
exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St.
Peter’s church should go to ashes, than that it should be
built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep.

51. Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope’s
wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money to very many
of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money,
even though the church of St. Peter might have to be sold.

52. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain,
even though the commissary, nay, even though the pope himself,
were to stake his soul upon it.

53. They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who bid the
Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order
that pardons may be preached in others.

54. Injury is done the Word of God when, in the same sermon,
an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this
Word.

55. It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons,
which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell,
with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which
is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred
bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.

56. The “treasures of the Church,” out of which the pope.
grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among
the people of Christ.

57. That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident,
for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so
easily, but only gather them.

58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even
without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man,
and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man.

59. St. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were
the Church’s poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the
word in his own time.

60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given
by Christ’s merit, are that treasure;

61. For it is clear that for the remission of penalties and of
reserved cases, the power of the pope is of itself sufficient.

62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of
the glory and the grace of God.

63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes
the first to be last.

64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is
naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.

65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which
they formerly were wont to fish for men of riches.

66. The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they
now fish for the riches of men.

67. The indulgences which the preachers cry as the “greatest
graces” are known to be truly such, in so far as they promote
gain.

68. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared
with the grace of God and the piety of the Cross.

69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of
apostolic pardons, with all reverence.

70. But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and
attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own
dreams instead of the commission of the pope.

71 . He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let
him be anathema and accursed!

72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the
pardon-preachers, let him be blessed!

73. The pope justly thunders against those who, by any art,
contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons.

74. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who
use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love
and truth.

75. To think the papal pardons so great that they could
absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and
violated the Mother of God — this is madness.

76. We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not
able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its
guilt is concerned.

77. It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could
not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter
and against the pope.

78. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and
any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to wit,
the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written
in I. Corinthians xii.

79. To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms,
which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal
worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.

80. The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk
to be spread among the people, will have an account to render.

81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it no easy
matter, even for learned men, to rescue the reverence due to
the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of
the laity.

82. To wit: — “Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the
sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are
there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake
of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former
reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial.”

83. Again: — “Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the
dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the
withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it
is wrong to pray for the redeemed?”

84. Again: — “What is this new piety of God and the pope,
that for money they allow a man who is impious and their enemy
to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and
do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul’s own
need, free it for pure love’s sake?”

85. Again: — “Why are the penitential canons long since in
actual fact and through disuse abrogated and dead, now
satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were
still alive and in force?”

86. Again: — “Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day
greater than the riches of the richest, build just this one
church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the
money of poor believers?”

87. Again: — “What is it that the pope remits, and what
participation does he grant to those who, by perfect
contrition, have a right to full remission and participation?”

88. Again: — “What greater blessing could come to the Church
than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now
does once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and
participations?”

89. “Since the pope, by his pardons, seeks the salvation of
souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences
and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal
efficacy?”

90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by
force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to
expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their
enemies, and to make Christians unhappy.

91. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the
spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily
resolved; nay, they would not exist.

92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people
of Christ, “Peace, peace,” and there is no peace!

93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of
Christ, “Cross, cross,” and there is no cross!

94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in
following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and
hell;

95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather
through many tribulations, than through the assurance of
peace.


This text was converted to ascii format for Project Wittenberg by
Allen Mulvey and is in the public domain. You may freely
distribute, copy or print this text. Please direct any comments
or suggestions to: Rev. Robert E. Smith of the Walther Library at
Concordia Theological Seminary.

E-mail: CFWLibrary@CRF.CUIS.EDU
Surface Mail: 6600 N. Clinton St., Ft. Wayne, IN 46825 USA
Phone: (219) 481-2123 Fax: (219) 481-2126


file: /pub/resources/text/wittenberg/luther: ninetyfive.txt

Thirty-nine years for freedom:
Timeline of Martin Luther King Jr.’s life
Charles Johnson:
The lessons from fictionalizing King’s story

Spreading the message:
Recollection of King’s first civil rights attorney

Pillow fights and passion:
Andrew Young on King, civil rights, and the progress we’ve made

A special visit:
King comes to Seattle

In his own voice:
sound clips of King

Remembering an antiseptic hero
Julian Bond on Martin Luther King Jr.


Few have had as much impact upon the American consciousness as the late civil rights leader,
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

As we mark the 70th anniversary of King’s birth in 1999, we hope you will join us in a dialogue about the role King played
in shaping America — and about where we’re going.


Click here for a list of 1999 stories related to Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr.: Follow his footsteps


The life of Martin Luther King Jr.

This timeline is by no means comprehensive. Most links from within this timeline will take you off The Seattle Times MLK site. Those marked with “*” will take you to a photo page.


1929 January 15. Michael Luther King Jr., later renamed Martin, born to schoolteacher Alberta King and
Baptist minister Michael Luther King. Boyhood in Sweet Auburn district.
1948 King graduates from Morehouse College in Atlanta, Ga. with a B.A.
1951 Graduates with a B.D. from Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pa.
1953 June 18. King marries Coretta Scott in Marion, Ala.. They will have four children: Yolanda Denise (b.1955),
Martin Luther King III (b.1957), Dexter (b.1961), Bernice Albertine (b.1963).
1954 September. King moves to Montgomery, Ala. to preach at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church.
1955 After coursework at New England colleges, King finishes his Ph.D.in systematic theology.
1956 January 26. King is arrested for driving 30 m.p.h.in a 25 m.p.h. zone.
January 30. King’s house bombed.
1957 January. Black ministers form what
became known as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. King is named
first president one month later.
In this typical year of demonstrations, King traveled 780,000 miles and made 208 speeches.
1958 King’s first book published, Stride Toward Freedom  (Harper), his recollections of the Montgomery bus boycott.
While King is promoting his book in a Harlem book store, an African American woman stabs him.
1959 King visits India. He had a lifelong admiration for Mohandas K. Gandhi, and credited Gandhi’s passive resistance
techniques for his civil-rights successes.
1960 King leaves for Atlanta to pastor his father’s church, Ebenezer Baptist Church.*
1962 King meets with President John F. Kennedy to urge support for civil rights.
1963 King leads protests in Birmingham for desegregated department store facilities, and fair hiring.
April. Arrested after demonstrating in defiance of a court order, King writes “Letter From Birmingham Jail.”
This eloquent letter, later widely circulated,
became a classic of the civil-rights movement.
August 28. 250,000 civil-rights supporters attended the March on Washington.*
At the Lincoln Memorial, King delivers the famous “I have a dream” speech.
1964 King’s book published: Why We Can’t Wait .
King visits with West Berlin Mayor Willy Brant and Pope Paul VI.
December 10. King wins Nobel Peace Prize.
1965 January 18. King successfully registers to vote at the Hotel Albert in Selma, Ala.
and is assaulted by James George Robinson of Birmingham.
February. King continues to protest discrimination in voter registration,
is arrested and jailed. Meets with President Lyndon B. Johnson Feb. 9 and other American leaders about
voting rights for African Americans.
March 16-21. King and 3,200 people march from Selma to Montgomery.
1968 April 4. King is assassinated in Memphis, Tenn. by James Earl Ray.
1986 January 20 is the first national celebration of King’s birthday as a holiday.

“I Have A Dream”

by Martin Luther King, Jr,

Delivered on the steps at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. on August 28, 1963. Source: Martin Luther
King, Jr: The Peaceful Warrior, Pocket Books, NY 1968

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand signed the
Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to
millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a
joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. But one hundred years later, we must face the
tragic fact that the Negro is still not free.

One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of
segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a
lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years
later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in
his own land.

So we have come here today to dramatize an appalling condition. In a sense we have come to
our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent
words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory
note to which every American was to fall heir.

This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty,
and the pursuit of happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory
note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation,
America has given the Negro people a bad check which has come back marked “insufficient
funds.” But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that
there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation.

So we have come to cash this check — a check that will give us upon demand the riches of
freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America
of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the
tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of
segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to
all of God’s children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the
solid rock of brotherhood.

It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the
determination of the Negro. This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not
pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an
end, but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be
content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. There will be
neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights.

The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day
of justice emerges. But there is something that I must say to my people who stand on the warm
threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place we
must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking
from the cup of bitterness and hatred.

We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. we must not
allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to
the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force.

The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to
distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here
today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is
inextricably bound to our freedom.

We cannot walk alone. And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall march ahead.
We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, “When will you
be satisfied?” we can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel,
cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be
satisfied as long as the Negro’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can
never be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York
believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be
satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.

I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of
you have come fresh from narrow cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for
freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police
brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that
unearned suffering is redemptive.

Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back
to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will
be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends, that in spite
of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in
the American dream.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We
hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.” I have a dream that one day
on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be
able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of
Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be
transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four children will one
day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of
their character. I have a dream today.

I have a dream that one day the state of Alabama, whose governor’s lips are presently dripping
with the words of interposition and nullification, will be transformed into a situation where little
black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk
together as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day every valley
shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain,
and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all
flesh shall see it together. This is our hope. This is the faith with which I return to the South. With
this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we
will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of
brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle
together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one
day.

This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with a new meaning, “My
country, ’tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the
pilgrim’s pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring.” And if America is to be a great nation,
this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let
freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening
Alleghenies of Pennsylvania! Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado! Let
freedom ring from the curvaceous peaks of California! But not only that; let freedom ring from
Stone Mountain of Georgia! Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee! Let freedom
ring from every hill and every molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every
state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men
and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing
in the words of the old Negro spiritual, “Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free
at last!”

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